Types of Motivation

To understand the different types of motivation it will help if you deconstruct the term motivation. Then the various motivation theories should be reviewed as each is a different method, form or type of motivation.

Motivation is the reason for action or behavior or behaving in a particular way. Some would describe motivation as the why.

In the field of public speaking, learning to use words to motivate is essential to succeed.

Understanding the motivational types or theories of motivation will help you understand the factors of motivation. Understand the motivation factors and you will be in a better position to motivate your audience with your public speaking.

This will provide a brief review of the various different motivational aspects and motivational theories.

Motivational Concepts

Understanding the motivational concepts is the first requirement to understand the types of motivation.

Incentive Theory of Motivation

An incentive or reward is the motivational factor. It is either tangible or intangible and is provided once the desired action or behavior is performed.

Repeating giving the incentive causes the desired action or behavior to become a habit. Once a habit, it becomes part of how the respondent thinks.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation

is the result of what occurs naturally or inwardly. Traits of intrinsic motivation can be seen in believing in ones self to accomplish change rather than luck.

Intrinsic motivation will be demonstrated in the desire to master an educational or professional subject rather than learning for the sake of grades (an extrinsic motivation).

In sports, it is motivation for the love of the game. It is the reason people master hobbies.

Extrinsic motivation

comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations.

In sports, the crowd may cheer the performer on, and this motivates him or her to do well. Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is often extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.

Considering the types of motivation, these are the two most basic concepts to understand.

Self Motivation

or self control is considered a form of self control. A person could be very intelligent based on the ability to use knowledge in a beneficial way in many aspects or may be a highly effective manager, able to get groups of people to accomplish difficult tasks. Even though having this knowledge and the intrinsic motivation to continue to perform in these roles, the same person may be unable to exert self motivation or self control to pursue a particular goal.

One very common example of a lack of self control is overeating. Often times highly effective people and especially men, who are exceptional at what they do fail to be able to manage self control or to self motivate s evidenced in their eating more than their body requirements.

In the case of men more than women there can be a tendency for food to be the drug of choice to manage the stress of performing. Food over stretches the stomach releasing chemicals that end up in the brain making it feel good.

Rarely do these men live past 60 years of age, dying of heart-attack, stroke or diabetic related diseases. In the case of the latter, sugar becomes the comfort drug of choice.

Rarely will such admit that they have a lack of self control, one of the first requirements for being able to develop intrinsic motivation to manage personal health and mental hygiene.

Next, consider the types of motivation based on the various motivational theories.

Motivation Theories

Drive Reduction Theories

These theories come from the inner needs human have also called drives. If we satisfy a drive, it is reduced. If not the drive increases.

These drives would include things such as food, fight or flight and even additions. There are several real world problems with this theory.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Another drive reduction theory occurs when there is an incongruity or incompatibility of two cognitions.

Smokers often know smoking is bad for health, wants good health but will continue to smoke. The pleasure of smoking is a stronger motivation than the desire for health. The immediacy of pleasure is a greater drive and once reduced, no longer needed once the drive is filled till the need arrives again. motivation

Need Hierarchy Theory

From Abraham Maslow's theories of motivation.





Self actualization

This theory does not account for spirituality. How can someone overlook physiological and safety needs and lose their life rather than renounce their faith as with Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany.

Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

Also called intrinsic/extrinsic motivation it the theory that factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, lack of these factors leads to dissatisfaction.

Also called the Motivator-Hygiene Theory in that like personal hygiene, having it will not make you healthier but failing to have it can make you sick.

Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory

The ERG theory by Clayton Alderfer took Maslow's hierarchy of needs and expanded on them.

Self-determination theory

Self-determination theory, centers its interest on intrinsic motivation as a driver of human behavior.

Broad Theories

Look up the...Onion-Ring-Model of Achievement Motivation...by Heinz Schuler to learn more about this.

Cognitive Theories

Goal-setting theory

considers that sometimes people have drives to reach clearly defined goals.

Goals typically are reasonable, attainable and measurable.

To say the goal is to accomplish as much as possible is not really a goal. It is a nice idea but lacks the clear definition of a goal.

Unconscious Motivation

Some motivation results from unconscious drives.

Compulsions such as smoking, eating, gambling are examples of unconscious types of motivation.

Intrinsic Motivation: The 16 Basic Desires Theory

Acceptance, the need for approval

Curiosity, the need for cognitive processes

Eating, the need for food

Family, the need to rear children

Honor, the need of loyal to the values of one's clan, ethnic group or organization

Idealism, the need for social justice

Independence, the need for personal individuality

Order, the need for organization in ones life and stable, predictable environments

Physical Activity, the need for exercise

Power, the need for influence of will

Romance, the need for sex

Saving, the need to collect

Social Contact, needing friends or peer relationships

Status, the need for social standing/importance

Tranquility, the need to be safe

Vengeance, the need to strike back

These are the basics of the types of motivation in the study of human motivation theory.

Now it is time to put them to work in your public speaking. Consider further information on the types of motivation.

More on Public Speaking Motivation

More on Motivation Theory

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